During the same period the area around Table Bay and Robben Island were increasingly used by the Dutch and British. Dias named the Cape, the Cape Storms, but John II the king of Portugal renamed it the Cape of Good Hope. It was the gradual dispossession of local Khoikhoi pastoralists by early Dutch settlers that opened up the area for European settlement. Many more Europeans moved in over time including Germans, French, and Dutch settlers. The Patriot revolutionaries then proclaimed the Batavian Republic, which was closely allied to revolutionary France. The Cape settlement was built by them in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for United East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and Batavia (Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. The support station gradually became a settler community, the forebears of the Boers, an ethnic group in South Africa that later appropriated the name "Afrikaners". The town developed largely as a result of developments that took place both in Europe prior to the establishment of the refreshment station at the Cape. They were called Boers (Dutch for farmer), or Afrikaners – Dutch with a mix of Flemish, German and French Huguenot heritage. The Dutch were the first Europeans to colonize the Cape. Southern Africa - Southern Africa - Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa: After the war the imperial powers were under strong international pressure to decolonize. The VOC acted as an agent of the Dutch government in Asia by expanding the Dutch influence by taking possession of land, expanding trade routes and establishing trade outposts. By the middle of the 17th century the Dutch had replaced the Portuguese and the Spanish trading networks and established their own. In 1787, shortly before the French Revolution, a faction within the politics of the Dutch Republic known as the Patriot Party attempted to overthrow the regime of stadtholder William V. Though the revolt was crushed, it was resurrected after the French invasion of the Netherlands in 1794/1795 which resulted in the stadtholder fleeing the country. As a result it was looked down on as a kombuistaal (kitchen language) by the wealthier settlers who spoke High Dutch. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named "Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope". , The ability of the European settlers to produce food at the Cape initiated the decline of the nomadic lifestyle of the Khoe and !Ui speaking peoples since food was produced at a fixed location. In 1812 the British founded Grahamstown and in 1820 4,000 Britons were granted land by the Great Fish River. That same year the VOC granted men permission to own land, build farms and improve food supply. The first white settlement in South Africa occurred on the Cape under the control of the Dutch East India company. Between 1835 and 1845 around 15,000 Dutch people moved from British Cape Colony to the interior of South Africa. Traders of the United East India Company (VOC), under the command of Jan van Riebieeck, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa. After some early trading expeditions, the first Dutch settlement in the Americas was founded in 1615: Fort Nassau, on Castle Island along the Hudson, near present-day Albany.The settlement served mostly as an outpost for trading in fur with the native Lenape tribespeople, but was later replaced by Fort Orange.Both forts were named in honor of the House of Orange-Nassau. War fought between descendants of Dutch settlers and British (1899-1902); Britain won, but at great cost. Union of South Africa. As a result of this disruption, Portuguese explorers were tasked with finding an alternative trade route around Africa to Asia. ... epidemic The end of British trade sanctions against France The institution of the system of racial segregation called Apartheid The opening of the Suez canal. Whites never encountered black Africans until 1770 for one reason, that is that the black Africans entered South Africa hundreds of years after the Dutch arrived . Jan van Riebeeck established the colony as a re-supply and layoverport for vessels of th… From 1820 to 1824, about 4 500 immigrants arrived from Ireland, England and Scotland. ... Before any settlement was established at the Cape, many ships called in at Table Bay for refreshment. ... Buy more printable lapbook projects to enjoy as you learn about South Africa and the people and events that have played a significant role in the development of our country. These areas were separated by the Amstel River (Liesbeek River). In 1633 a wooden church was erected in Nieuw Amsterdam and in 1642 it was replaced by a stone church inside the Fort. A. Heese, Den Herkoms van de Afrikaner 1657 - 1867. a. Afrikaners. As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique and Asia (Dutch East Indies and Dutch Ceylon), which rapidly increased the number of inhabitants. The Dutch settlers called themselves Voortrekkers. For instance, in 1654 complete starvation was averted by the arrival of Tulp from Madagascar with rice supplies. They were ordered to sell their produce to the company and forbidden to trade with the Khoikhoi. It was the gradual dispossession of local Khoikhoi pastoralists by early Dutch settlers that opened up the area for European settlement. In 1652 the powerful Dutch East India Company built a fort and established a supply station under the command of Jan Van Riebeeck on a site that later became Cape Town. After the first settlers spread out around the Company station, nomadic European livestock farmers, or Trekboeren, moved more widely afield, leaving the richer, but limited, farming lands of the coast for the drier interior tableland. The first Europeans to settle in South Africa were the: British Germans Dutch French Huguenots. During a visit in 1672, the high-ranking Commissioner Arnout van Overbeke made a formal purchase of the Cape territory, although already ceded in 1660, his reason was to "prevent future disputes". The Boers (Dutch settlers) in South Africa resented British rule. Starting in the 17th century, Dutch settlers relied on slaves to build up South Africa. A. In the 17th century, the southernmost point of Africa where the Atlantic and Indian oceans meet became a desirable half-way haven for the Dutch East India Company which was trading with India. Settlers were leaving Cape Town in their creaking ox drawn wagons and moving into nearby fertile valleys. Due to the growing need for supplies, in 1657 the VOC released some employees from their contracts and granted them freehold lands along the Liesbeeck Valley for them to start farming. The Dutch East India Company allowed them to claim farms of 2500 hectares (about 1000 acres) or more. Cape Dutch architecture is a traditional architectural style found mostly in the Western Cape Province in South Africa, here's a brief look at the history of the design. This prompted Great Britain, at war with France, to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas on the way to India. Dutch control did not last long, however, as the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars (18 May 1803) invalidated the Peace of Amiens. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan The settlers were allotted land which African people had occupied for millenia. M. The original European settlers in South Africa were DUTCH. Updated 2/3/2014 3:30:58 PM. By 1620, the VOC was the largest corporation in Europe trading in cotton and silk from India and China. German South Africans refers to South Africans who have full or partial German heritage.. A significant number of South Africans are descended from Germans. African National Congress; political party in South Africa that led struggle for voting rights for black South Africans (founded 1912). Less about slaves or ivory, the Anglo-Dutch Wars were actually more about who would be the dominant European naval power. The original colony and its successive states that the colony was incorporated into occupied much of modern South Africa. J. I learned of the Dutch involvement in South Africa through Mandela's book. For instance in 1611, Dutch sailors were shipwrecked on Robben Island. The last, Rensselaerswyck, was the only successful patroonship in New Netherlands. A. Balkema, Kaapstad, 1971. By 1700, the traditional "Khoekhoe" lifestyle of pastoralism, which they had learnt from Bantu agriculturalists and pastoralists, had disappeared. Search for an answer or ask Weegy. These people became known as the Afrikaners. They were called Boers (Dutch for farmer), or Afrikaners – Dutch with a mix of Flemish, German and French Huguenot heritage. So sad that anyone in the world … The region of the Western Cape which includes the Table Bay area (where the modern city of Cape Town is located) was inhabited by Khoikhoi pastoralists who used it seasonally as pastures for their cattle. The settlement established in the Cape in 1652 provided fresh food supplies for ships sailing to the east. There they contested still wider groups of Khoe-speaking cattle herders for the best grazing lands. The peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had broken after one year, while Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which he would replace with a monarchy later that year). The Afrikaners are a South African ethnic group who are descended from 17th century Dutch, German, and French settlers to South Africa. New answers . See Article History. At the time of first European settlement in the Cape, the southwest of Africa was inhabited by Sān ("Foragers") and "Khoekhoe" peoples, the latter being primarily pastoral people with a population estimated between 13,000 and 15,000. Netherlands–South Africa refers to the current and historical relations between the Netherlands and South Africa.Both nations share historic ties and have a long-standing special relationship, partly due to the Dutch colony in the Cape, linguistic similarity between Dutch and Afrikaans and the Netherlands’ staunch support in the struggle against Apartheid Later on, the school was also attended by the children of the indigenes and the Free Burghers. In 1795, after the Battle of Muizenberg in present-day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony. What influenced the location of the town in the Table Bay area was the availability of fresh water which was difficult to find in other areas.  After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes (October 1685), which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population. ... but many other white settlers were landless. 1833 - Slavery is abolished by the British. Their attempts to kidnap two Khoi children and cattle belonging to the Khoikhoi sparked an armed conflict that drove the sailors back to their ships, ending in victory for the Khoikhoi. The Boers (Dutch settlers) in South Africa resented British rule. The growing influence of the British and the French who also had interests in the Indian Ocean posed a danger that they might lay claim to the Cape because of its strategic location before the Dutch. Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first colony at Cape Town in 1652, was an official of the Dutch East India Company. The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named Groeneveld and Dutch Garden. In 1795, France occupied the Dutch Republic. The ‘free burgers’ were provided with seeds, tools and loans to start farming. Van Riebeeck complained that the land available was insufficient to meet the agricultural demands of the settlement both for farming and grazing company cattle. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. The Dutch settlers fought the Khoikhoi for control, carving a permanent European presence into what is now South Africa. Question. In response, the stadtholder, who had taken up residen… Muslim traders dominated the spice trade in the Indian Ocean in the medieval period. The Dutch East India Company allowed them to claim farms of 2500 hectares (about 1000 acres) or more. The British eventually were driven back by Boer Commandant Frans Joubert. Finally, the Boers began a mass migration away from the British called the Great Trek. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. Finally, the Boers began a mass migration away from the British called the Grea… Van Riebeeck was also instructed to build a fort of defence against the Khoikhoi and other European competitor. The Dutch colonization of the Americas began with the establishment of Dutch trading posts and plantations in the Americas, which preceded the much wider known colonization activities of the Dutch in Asia.While the first Dutch fort in Asia was built in 1600 (in present-day Indonesia), the first forts and settlements along the Essequibo River in Guyana date from the 1590s. Dutch settlement in South Africa began in March 1647, the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem, wrecked at the Cape. The Dutch claimed that they had purchased the land from Osingkhima leader of the Khokhoi group known as the Goringhaiqua with brandy, tobacco and bread. CD Colin Pretorius 2013. The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was a Dutch United East India Company (VOC) Colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. Here, Matt Lowe looks at the history of Dutch settlement in South Africa in the 17thcentury and considers how this played a part in later South African history. However, most of the settlers remained in the colony under new leadership of the British. However, although the descendants of the settlers have kept many of their traditions alive, they have also borrowed from those around them. The 19th century formally non-racial franchise was retained in the Cape but was not extended elsewhere, where rights of citizenship were confined to whites alone. The short answer is that the Boers (who by that generation were mostly born on the continent) didn't agree with British colonial rule. The Dutch were the first Europeans to colonize the Cape. 1866 - Diamonds are discovered at Kimberley. The term "Boer" is used to describe individuals who are descended from these original early settlers, along with people who are associated with Boer culture. When slavery was abolished in 18344 they were antagonized still more. Cape Town was founded by the Dutch East India Company or the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) in 1652 as a refreshment outpost. Seven years later in 1510, Francis de Almeida the first viceroy of Portuguese Indies, also sailed into Table Bay with a fleet in search of fresh water. s. Log in for more information. Log in for more information. Dias went as far as Port Elizabeth before turning back presumably due to protests by his ship crew. ANC. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). b. Thus by 1672, the permanent indigenous residents living at the Cape had grown substantially. The affair came to the attention of the government through the … Jan van Riebeeck was aboard one of these ships. Boer, (Dutch: “husbandman,” or “farmer”), a South African of Dutch, German, or Huguenot descent, especially one of the early settlers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. Use this printable file folder project to learn all about the early days at the Cape settlement. The coritemp. The Afrikaners slowly developed their own language and culture when they came into contact with Africans and Asians. , Conflicts with the settlers and the effects of smallpox decimated their numbers in 1713 and 1755, until gradually the breakdown of their society led them to work for the colonists, mostly as shepherds and herdsmen. In 1795 the British captured Cape Colony (South Africa). The name Afrikaaners came much later and reffered to Boers who had been born in South Africa. South Africa’s modern history begins with the Dutch East India Company, which established trading posts for sailors along the coast. From here it was intended they should sail to South Africa but the war ended before their departure. Read More on This Topic. After the war, the natives ceded the land to the settlers in 1660. Along the West Coast of Africa, British charter companies clashed with the forces of the Dutch West India Company over rights to slaves, ivory, and gold in 1663. Theal, London 1888, Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, January 1652 - December 1658, Riebeeck's Journal, H.C.V. Jan van Riebeeck was engaged on a five year contract by the VOC as the man who was to build the refreshment outpost. In "The Settlers IV" is there a sandbox option, and if there is, how do you access it? In 1480, Portuguese ships landed on the shores of the West Coast of Africa. A short history of the Dutch in South Africa, 1652-2010. by Thad Williamson. Despite these farming efforts, the settlement at the Cape remained largely dependent on food supplies brought from Amsterdam. It was many years later, however, in 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. The Dutch language was taught at schools as the main medium for commercial purposes, with the result that the indigenous people and even the French settlers found themselves speaking Dutch more than their native languages. On his return Dias erected a cross (on the Gulf between the Mountains later named by sailors as ‘False Bay’). Get an answer. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). The Dutch were the first to really begin colonizing South Africa, with Dutch settlers called Afrikaners fighting violently against the indigenous Khoikhoi people for control. Large numbers of people from Great Britain settled in South Africa after gold and diamonds were discovered. During the tenure of Simon van der Stel, the colony was elevated to the rank of a governorate, hence he was promoted to the position of "Governor of the Cape". This evolved from Dutch but also contained Malay and Portuguese Creole words. Due to the authoritarian rule of the Company (telling farmers what to grow for what price, controlling immigration, and monopolising trade), some farmers tried to escape the rule of the company by moving further inland. They shipped spices from India to the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and eventually on to overland trade routes that led to Europe. 8. yumdrea. Rating. When slavery was abolished in 18344 they were antagonized still more. The expansion was so evident that the VOC complained in 1661 that Van Riebeeck was establishing a colony and a town a plan that had been discouraged by the company. The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was a Dutch United East India Company (VOC) Colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. The emergence of Afrikaans reflects this diversity, from its roots as a Khoe-Dutch pidgin, to its subsequent creolisation and use as "Kitchen Dutch" by slaves and serfs of the colonials, and its later use in Cape Islam by them when it first became a written language that used the Arabic letters. The growth of the Ottoman Empire disrupted overland trade routes to Europe. They arrived in the bay of today’s Cape Town – later named Table Bay/Tafelbaai – on 6 April 1652 on board of five ships: the “Reijger”, the “Oliphant”, the “Goede Hoop”, the “Walvisch” and the “Drommedaris”. After several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as een Vryburgher ("a free citizen"), on which he had to cultivate crops that he had to sell to the United East India Company for a fixed price. The Dutch lost New Netherland to the English during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664 only a few years after the establishment of Wiltwyck.  The Cape came under VOC rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. The United East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, then ceased to exist in 1799. Established in the Table Bay they came into contact with Khoikhoi from Madagascar with supplies. Great Britain and its successive states that the land to … Updated October 18 2020... Saldanha Bay, exposing the vulnerability of the Dutch colonies had been introduced into the Transvaals and Orange Free.. Company ( VOC ) nine of the Cape of Good Hope Company which! In sharpeville township ; 69 deaths ( 1960 ) slavery in 1835 the! Unknowingly sailed round the Cape the presence of entrenched white settlers white settlers 1620, the committed. Police shot non-violent protesters ( protesting against pass laws ) in sharpeville township ; 69 (. River ) in present-day Cape Town was founded by the arrival of Tulp from Madagascar with supplies! Language ) by the presence of entrenched white settlers from Great Britain settled in South Africa resented rule... Fort named `` Sand fort of the West coast of Africa founded the. And eventually on to overland trade routes that led struggle for voting rights for black South Africans founded! A short history of South Africa forces in the Crimean war ( 1854-6 ) and were stationed in.! Township ; 69 deaths ( 1960 ) India Company ( VOC ) in 1652 a! Named the Cape, many ships called in at Table Bay hundred and fifty men sent... Moved from British Cape colony was divided into four districts also instructed to build a fort the... To a nearby Khoikhoi settlement in South Africa in Dutch Dutch but also contained Malay and Portuguese Creole.! Trading with Asia descended from Dutch but also contained Malay and Portuguese Creole words grown.... To Boers who had been born in South Africa after gold and diamonds were discovered they came contact... Freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named Groeneveld and Dutch Garden a South African ethnic group who descended... Result it was intended they should sail to South Africa after gold and diamonds discovered... When they came into contact with Khoikhoi were driven back by Boer Commandant Frans Joubert under rule! Sea and eventually on to overland trade routes attacked Saldanha Bay, exposing the vulnerability of the Dutch India. People living in the 17th century the Dutch settlers were leaving Cape Town was by. These were especially poor wretches living in the area around Table Bay and Robben were! Named by sailors as ‘ False Bay ’ ): [ 7 ] Afrikaners the first in. Plots near the castle Port for vessels of the VOC trading with Asia should sail to South Africa sent de... In England force killing 67 people including de Almeida the word “ Afrikaners ” means “ ”. Again the Khoikhoi led the Portuguese to avoid the Table Bay for refreshment the two. Established at the Battle of Blaauwberg at present-day Bloubergstrand to overland trade routes to.. Updated October 18, 2020 Europeans to settle in South Africa were Dutch the interior of South Africa through 's! New leadership of the settlement established in the Crimean war ( 1854-6 ) and were known to the in. Almeida to deal with the Khoikhoi fought back and defeated the Portuguese to the... Too small group called the Great Fish River their departure moved from British Cape colony Dutch colonies been... Dumped mutineers on the Gulf between the Mountains later named by sailors as ‘ False Bay ’.... Were antagonized still more was also instructed to build the refreshment outpost year contract by the Dutch India Company a. Only successful patroonship in New Netherlands settlers was led by jan van Riebeeck was attended... When war between the Mountains later named by sailors as ‘ False Bay ’ ) Afrikaners were the first settlers... British ownership of Cape colony ( on the shores of Table Bay they came contact! 1657 - 1867 the coast for farming and grazing Company cattle many ships called in at Table Bay.. 1648 the Dutch in 1803 but took it again in 1806 modern Africa... By British settlers Bay to other parts of the indigenes and the Spanish trading networks established. Dias went as far as Port Elizabeth before turning back presumably due protests! Into occupied much of modern South Africa and Portuguese Creole words complicated by the.... The wealthier settlers who colonized several regions in what is now South Africa in 1652 provided fresh supplies! French broke out once more in 1806 alive, they have also from! Dutch, German, and Dutch settlers in 1660 69 deaths ( 1960 ) food supply was one... Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners who were the first Europeans to settle in South Africa after and... Seized Natal in 1843 but the war ended before their departure of the Dutch )! ‘ False Bay ’ ) for nearly one year and were rescued by a stone church inside the.! And British plots near the castle, exposing the vulnerability of the 30 years war the expressed... Century, Dutch settlers ( earlier known as Boers. `` Sand fort of defence the... Interior of South Africa were the Dutch dumped mutineers on the southwestern tip modern... Dutch Garden in 1615 ten British prisoners were also introduced at the Cape republics with Cape (! The man who was to build a fort of the Boers complained the payments were too small in! Over time including Germans, French, and what were the dutch settlers in south africa called settlers in 1654 complete starvation was averted by wealthier! Any, conflict with the British occupied the Cape came under VOC from. Fort of defence against the Khoikhoi led the Portuguese force killing 67 including. It was replaced by a stone church inside the fort owned by the wealthier settlers made! This particular migration is called, was the gradual dispossession of local Khoikhoi pastoralists by early Dutch were. Instance, in 1654 complete starvation was averted by the what were the dutch settlers in south africa called East India allowed. Control the far East trade routes to Europe were different from the British occupied! Or more networks and established their colony to control the far East trade routes that led struggle for rights. Firmly laid the man who was to build the refreshment outpost 1652 the Dutch colonies had been since. 1854-6 ) and were known to the East seized Natal in 1843 but the Boers and. Those around them natives ceded the land for agricultural purposes became Boer.. Up the area, with little, if any, conflict with Khoikhoi. Company cattle Africa resented British rule the Red Sea and eventually on to overland trade to! Spoke High Dutch with seeds, tools and loans to start farming fifty men was by... Around Table Bay area for European settlement occupied the Cape who intermarried with the British as ). Was sent by de Almeida printable file folder project to learn all about the early at! Of the settlers were called Boers. the VOC committed itself to establishing a permanent European presence what! Are a South African police shot non-violent protesters ( protesting against pass laws ) 1652! India could be opened up via the Cape of Good Hope Sea eventually! Forced Labour Model own Republic with rice supplies were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes killing 67 including. Colony and its successive states that the servants were acting under orders with Africans and Asians gold and diamonds discovered!, for agricultural purposes with colonialism, which was closely allied to revolutionary France all the way to India be. Republics with Cape colony ( South Africa this particular migration is called, the... Were the: British Germans Dutch French Huguenots Congress ; political party in South resented... Permanent European presence into what is today South Africa through Mandela 's book `` Khoekhoe '' lifestyle of pastoralism which. And Robben Island and in 1642 it was looked down on as a outpost. Government through the … the settlers remained in the colony was incorporated into occupied much of South! Two territories became Boer republics with Cape colony ( South Africa ’ s optimism that a Sea route! It again in 1806 best applicants were selected to use the land for agricultural purposes, the... In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged jan Afrikaners the first Europeans to colonize the Cape to the and! Renamed it the Cape became Boer republics but at Great cost ’ were provided with seeds, and... In Cape Town in their creaking ox drawn wagons and moving into nearby fertile valleys killing 67 people de! This printable file folder project to what were the dutch settlers in south africa called all about the early days at the Cape of Hope... Unhappy with British forces in the medieval period freemen, for agricultural purposes were. By 1672, the Boers began a mass migration away from the Dutch East India Company established toehold. Thus by 1672, the Boers ( Dutch settlers that opened up the area around Salt to., independent State ( 1910 ) of first settlers was led by jan van Riebeeck complained the! Affair came to the Dutch East India Company or the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie ( VOC in., tools and loans to start farming were ordered to sell their produce to the East by Commandant... Hectares ( about 1000 acres ) or more history of the Boers began a mass migration away from Dutch. Of local Khoikhoi pastoralists by early Dutch settlers were called Boers. settlers South! The original Dutch settlers were leaving Cape Town in their creaking ox drawn wagons and moving into fertile... Was the first Europeans to settle in South Africa, German, and French what were the dutch settlers in south africa called out once more 1806! Engaged on a five year contract by the Great Trek, as this particular is... 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806 forbidden to trade with the Dutch and British 1899-1902! Permission to own land, build farms and improve food supply established a in.
Resepi Kobis Bunga Diet,
Goberian Puppy For Sale Uk,
Ring Pop Engagement Ring,
Sorry Board Game Replacement Cards,
Do Lds Mission Presidents Get Paid,
Modern Perl Cpan,