Black Warrior – a chief of the 2nd rank (nephew of Buffalo Bull). Ponca Celebration Grand Entry 8pm Main Arena . 253-254). Of the 30 Ponca, only 12 returned alive. United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. By March 1879, Standing Bear and his followers had reached the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska, and the Omaha Chief Iron Eyes took pity on them, and offered food and asylum. 5. Welcome to the Ponca Tribe Archives of the state of Oklahoma! At this time they were joined by the Iowa, who belong to the Chiwere dialect of the Siouan language group, similar to the Otoe and Missouri Tribes. Grant agreed to the move if the Ponca were willing. By 1770, the Omaha had migrated to a site on Omaha Creek to build a fortified earth lodge village by themselves which they called “Big Village” in present day Thurston County, Nebraska. This page has been viewed 810 times (0 via redirect). However, the larger tribe of Pawnee frequently made war on the Ponca when their northern allies were not around. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is a tribal government that is comprised of 3783 members now located 5 miles south of Ponca City in the White Eagle Community. Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal Historic Preservation Office; Keeping tribal members up to date on the land office happenings for the Ponca Tribal Land Office. These guidelines were adopted by the Oklahoma … A fact that still provides modern-day Ponca with a certain level of pride. Then a grand council was established to reach an agreement on the terms of the peace, and rules of war and hunting. The Kay County town of Tonkawa is headquarters for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma, where a museum preserves the tribe’s cultural heritage. When the 8 Ponca chiefs reached their homeland, they found that since the Ponca had refused to go to Indian Territory of their own free will, a government order had been issued on 12 April 1877 to force their removal. Upon arriving, he learned that a party of 30 Ponca men had been returning home from a friendly visit with the Oglala Lakota to the north, when they were attacked by a group of Brule or Sicangu Lakota. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. The long march took a heavy toll on the tribe, over half of whom were women and children. A service provided by,, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. 08/25/2018 . Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma: lt;p|> ||The |Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma|, also known as the |Ponca Nation|, is one of tw... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. This land was part of the Indian Territory purchased from the Cherokee by the U.S. Government in the treaty of 1866. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. Beginning in 1856, although the Ponca tried to hunt in the spring and the fall in the traditional way, they were frequently turned away by Teton Lakota war parties. If you have additional information about this cemetery, please e-mail area coordinator. Buffalo Bull – head chief (also known as Little Bear. Later in 1847 the Mormons settled in the Rocky Mountains in what is now Salt Lake City, Utah. As a result, two prominent attorneys decided that a writ of habeas corpus, asking for 14th Amendment protection, could prevent the Ponca from being forcibly returned to their reservation in Oklahoma. They were quartered in tipis they had brought with them, as no other provisions had been made by the government for their accommodation. Smoke Maker – a chief of the 2nd rank (son of the chief of the same name who was killed by the Sicangu Lakota in 1824. Ponca Tribe originally sought an injunction in the District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (“IGRA”), 25 U.S.C. Traditionally, peoples of both tribes have spoken the Omaha-Ponca language, part of the Siouan language family. Copyright © 2018 Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Soon, the Ponca learned the value of being the middlemen in trade between Europeans and those tribes along the Upper Missouri, and in 1795 they began the practice of stopping and raiding trading craft as they went up the Missouri River (Howard, 1965, p. 25). Keep the Poore family in prayer during this time. However, attacks on the Omaha and Iowa villages by the Dakotas forced both the Omaha and the Iowa to leave the “bad village” site and migrate further south along the Missouri River. 20 White Eagle DrivePonca City, OK 74601(580) 762-8104Monday - Friday 8:00am - 5:00pm, List of Contact Numbers below for departments, and programs within the Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma. It is therefore safe to say that the population of the Ponca Tribe in 1874 consisted of a range between 600 and 769 individuals. However, they were vulnerable from attack by larger nomadic tribes as evidenced by an event that took place in 1824. The Teton Lakota Bands now had a perfect excuse for their continued raids on the Ponca, as the Ponca were now trespassers in their own homeland. Dissatisfied with the reservation system established after the Civil War, reformers and politicians decided to assimilate American Indians by forcing private ownership of land. United States Indigenous Peoples of the US Oklahoma, United States Genealogy Indigenous Peoples of Oklahoma Ponca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma) The Ponca Indian Reservation was located in Oklahoma. It was in this same area that Omaha and Ponca oral history say that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa first encountered the Marinara, who at that time occupied territory in Northeastern Nebraska. Ponca Tribe of Nebraska PO Box 288 Niobrara NE 68760 voice 402.857.3391 fax 402.857.3736 official website of the Nebraska/Northern Ponca Tribe Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma 20 White Eagle Drive Ponca City OK 74601 voice 580.762.9567 fax 580.762.2743 Official website of the Oklahoma/Southern Ponca Tribe Population: 1984: Total enrollment 2,028. Bending to their inevitable situation, the Ponca chiefs signed a treaty with the U.S. Government on 12 March 1858 which ceded to the government all 2.3 million acres of land which the Ponca owned or claimed “except for a small portion on which to colonize or domesticate them.” In return, the Federal Government promised to “protect the tribe in the possession of the remainder of their domain as their permanent home and to secure them in their persons and property” (Royce, 1899, p. 818). 1 History; 2 Records; 3 Agency Records. Language Group . It is then believed that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa proceeded slowly northward through present day Missouri, and into present day Iowa. In the same report filed in 1880, it was recorded that among the Ponca in Oklahoma, 80 houses had been built. However, figures presented do not add up. FIRST MI. In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma … Treaties. (Duncan, 1997, p. 59) the Ponca then made first contact with French traders in 1794. The tribal buffalo hunt in 1855 was the last successful big hunt. The Ponca Chief Iron Whip indicated the best route for the Mormons to follow when they continued on their journey west in April of 1847. In 1962, the Congress of the United States decided that the Northern Ponca Tribe should be terminated. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. Although Standing Bear and his followers were freed in the spring of 1879, they had no home to return to in Nebraska. LAST NAME. In the spring of the following year, in 1859, the Ponca tried to make their customary tribal buffalo hunt, but encountered a combined party of Sicangu Lakota, Oglala Lakota and Cheyenne at the headwaters of the Elkhorn River. The Ponca Tribe was approached by a government agent from the Indian Bureau, who selected 8 chiefs to accompany him to Oklahoma to look over several alternative sites for a new Ponca Reservation there. Therefore, Standing Bear and sixty-six followers left the Ponca Reservation in January 1879 on foot, following a wagon containing the body of his dead son, as they headed north to the traditional Ponca burial grounds in Nebraska. While the Mormons were there, 9 Ponca chiefs and sub-chiefs arrived on the 8th of August 1846, intending to seek peace negotiations with the Pawnee. Cut off from the buffalo and fearful of leaving their villages to farm outlying fields, the Ponca were often at the point of starvation. Buffalo Chip – a chief of the 2nd rank (after Black Warrior dies in August 1846). The Ponca tribe separated from the Omaha tribe in the early 18th century as they were migrating west from the Great Lakes region. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. They settled in present-day Nebraska and South Dakota. BORN. Operating as usual. The Ponca were divided into two hunting groups, those from the Gray Blanket village and those from the Fish Smell village. Present Day Tribes: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. both Omaha and Ponca legends say they were living in a village near a lake when the sacred cedar pole was found. Kathleen Powell June 27, 1948 - January 8, 2021. This archaeological site known as “Ponca Fort,” has been dated to circa 1700, and closely resembles the middle Mississippian fortified towns found in Ohio which date to 800 through 1550. However, figures presented do not add up. This document titled, “Constitution and Bylaws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma” was registered with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. [1] Current administration It seems that both tribes were out on their tribal buffalo hunts and the encounter was accidental. In addition, 350 head of cattle, and 600 horses were recorded, along with wagons that had been provided. Gen. George Crook was then given orders by Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz to arrest the run-a-ways and return them to Indian Territory. Their tribal jurisdiction spans parts of Kay and Noble counties. Because the Ponca were not to leave their reservation without permission, Standing Bear and his small group of followers were labeled as a renegade band. Later during the 1600s, the Ponca, Omaha, Osage and Kansas that went upriver along the Mississippi, stayed for a time near present day Osage and Gasconde Counties in Missouri, west of present day St. Louis. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. I am a descendant of the Ponca Tribe and of the Wa’zha’she Clan. Although it would be easy to write off Ponca City as just another small town in middle America, its unique heritage—steeped in the bygone days of cowboys … The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-Bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. According to Dorsey (1884, pp. Prior to 1500 AD, this collective group traveled from their original home in the Southeast, down the Ohio River to its mouth (Dorsey, 1886, p. 218). 3, 1877 (xix, 287), May 27, 1878 (xx,??? Membership in the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum, according to rules developed by the tribe. During the war of 1812, the Ponca and the Omaha allied with the United States, while the Sauk, who held territories northeast of the Omaha, allied with the British. Drum – principle chief of Fish Smell Village. She was a Ponca Elder who always showed compassion to others. COMMENTS; ABRAHAMSON: Bertha (Littlecook) 11 … Fancy Dance Casino is owned and operated by The Ponca Enterprise Gaming, LLC (PEG), a subsidiary of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Allotment in severalty robbed the Poncas and other Indians of additional land and made way for statehood. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. Meanwhile, the Ponca hunting party from the Gray Blanket village ran into the fleeing Pawnee and after an intense running fight, killed them to a man. Historical and archaeological evidence verifies that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa as a group, then traveled west to build a fortified village on the Big Sioux River, north of Sioux Falls, South Dakota (Howard, 1965, p. 15). Location - Southwest of Ponca City~~~Corner of Waverly Street and old Highway 60, go south about 3 miles on Waverly to Riverview Road. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we send our condolences to the Powell, Thomas, Leclair, and Kemble families. The Ponca were very unhappy in this location and pleaded for a better location in the Indian Territory. Another location was found for them on the west bank of the Arkansas River, covering both sides of the Salt Fork River in North-Central Oklahoma near what is now Ponca City. Smallpox and other introduced Eurasian diseases took a heavy toll of the tribe repeatedly in the 18th and 19th centuries, as they had no immunity to the new diseases. 580.763.0135;; 198 White Eagle Dr, Ponca City, Ok. 74601 By 1950 the U.S. Government formulated a policy which called for the dissolving and termination of all Indian Tribes. 6 Best Things to Do in Ponca City, Oklahoma. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we extend... our condolences for the loss of a well respected veteran and elder of the Ponca Tribe. In 2018, The Ponca Tribe of Indians Oklahoma (Southern Poncas) has 3,783 enrolled members. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is governed by an elected business committee and tribal chairperson and vice-chairperson. During this time, the Omaha and Iowa pushed further south along the Missouri River to build a village at Covington, Nebraska in present day Dakota County. By 1865, the last treaty signed with the Ponca, ceded an additional 30,000 acres of Ponca land to the U.S. Government, reducing the Ponca Reservation near Niobrara Nebraska, in what is now Knox and Boyd counties, to a mere 96,000 acres. From that time, the Iowa never again built a village near the Omaha (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 86). Welcome to the sovereign and self-governing lands of The Ponca Tribe of Indians Of Oklahoma. Over the next eight years, the Ponca repeatedly appealed to the U.S. Government for protection and assistance. By 20 October 1880, when agent A. R.  Satterwhite filed a report for the Ponca Agency in Indian Territory, the population of the Ponca in Oklahoma was now only 530 under the leadership of the following men: White EagleBlack CrowRush Into BattleThe ChiefBig BullBig SoldierChild Chief. In 1825 another treaty with the Ponca was made, in which the Ponca acknowledged that they lived within the “territorial limits of the United States,” thereby recognizing the supremacy of the larger force of the U.S. Government. Historic Tribes: Ponka. My family, also, includes the late Emily No Ear Kent, and descent from Chief White Eagle and Chief Standing Bear. By August of 1881, only 26,236 acres in Knox County, Nebraska were returned to the Ponca near Niobrara, and by 1882, there were 170 Ponca living there. Membership to the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum. Unfortunately, this association with Europeans had caused a smallpox epidemic among the Ponca in 1800 prior to Lewis and Clark’s arrival, which significantly reduced their number (James, 1823, p. 225). (O'shea & Ludwickson, 1992, pp. The Ponca, linguistically related to the Sioux, had settled in the area of northeast Nebraska and southeast South Dakota, having migrated there from the Ohio River Valley. Then, according to John John Champe (cited by Wood, 1959, p. 10), the Omaha and Iowa continued moving further south to build a village along Bow Creek near present day Wynot, Nebraska in Cedar County about 1735. James O. Dorsey, for many years a missionary and amateur ethnographer among the Ponca and the Omaha in the late 19th Century, states that later the neighboring Yankton Dakota Tribe made war on the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa while they camped on the Big Sioux River, which forced the group to travel west to the present day site of Lake Andes, in Choteau County, South Dakota. These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. Despite the “protection” of a trust period… During the 1970s members of the Northern Ponca Tribe, unwilling to accept their status as a terminated tribe, initiated the process of restoration to federal recognition. Allen, Delkhina dau. [Jordan Green/The Oklahoman] A tribal leader is calling for Oklahoma’s Native Americans to unite as the federal government ponders the future of key environmental regulatory activities in Oklahoma’s Indian Country. The group that traveled down river earned the name u-ga-xpa or Quapaw, meaning “with the current” or “downstream.” The Quapaw continued south along the east bank of the Mississippi River into what is now Arkansas, and these descriptive names were already in place by the time Hernando de Soto met the Quapaw Tribe when he crossed the Mississippi River in 1541 (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 36) and (Baird, 1989, p. 14). The southern Ponca under principal chief White Eagle settled on a 101,000-acre reservation near the confluence of the Salt Fork and Arkansas rivers in the Cherokee Outlet (present Kay and Noble counties in Oklahoma). In 1966, the Northern Poncas were completely terminated and all of their land and tribal holdings were dissolved. The Ponca chiefs made the journey to Indian Territory in Oklahoma, visiting many different land reserves which were equally barren and unsuitable for agriculture. The Ponca Restoration Bill giving the Northern Ponca federal recognition was introduced to the U.S. Senate, passed, and was signed into law by President Bush on 31 October 1990. Some 50 days later, the Ponca chiefs reached the Otoe Reservation along the Kansas/Nebraska border. Occasionally, small elements of the Lakota would sometimes raid the Ponca as well, taking horses or stealing corn they had grown. The Ponca made first contact with Spanish traders in 1789, and in 1790 their estimated population was approximately three thousand strong. Formal relations between the Ponca and the United States did not begin however, until 1817. December 24, 2020 By Lana Van Cleave. § 2701 et seq., requiring the state of Oklahoma and Oklahoma's governor to negotiate a compact which would permit the tribe to operate a Class III gaming facility on the reservation. The Ponca Tribe today has about 4,200 members with many still settled in Ponca City. The Ponca Indian Reservation was located in Oklahoma. The full-bloods formed a tipi village, while … White Eagle – son of Iron Whip (has hereditary leadership rites). Peter Wilson, acting on behalf of Maj. Benjamin O’Fallon, visited a group of Ponca at the mouth of the Niobrara River. Main article: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma After the 1877 forced relocation onto the Quapaw Reservation in Indian Territory, the tribe moved west to their own lands along the Arkansas and Salt Fork Rivers. In the summer of 1846, an advanced party of 400 Mormons were heading west to find a route through the Rocky Mountains after being driven from their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois earlier that year. Ponca City is a city in Kay County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. It was then that the first treaty was made between the Ponca and the U.S. to establish “perpetual peace and friendship” (Howard, 1965, p. 27). Food was also scarce as they had been on the move during the summers of 1877 and 1878 and had not been able to cultivate any crops. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people. Those that traveled upriver were known as U-Mon-Hon meaning “against the current” or “upstream.” the U-Mon-Hon or Omaha was also comprised of the Ponca, Osage and Kansas. However, Gen. Crook caught up with Standing Bear and his Ponca followers, took them into custody without incident, and began escorting them back to Indian Territory. According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered at White Eagle, near Ponca City, Oklahoma. The Fish Smell Poncas contented themselves with looting the deserted Pawnee hunting camp, taking such things as dried meat, moccasins, leggings, and rawhide lariats left behind. Poverty and disease would continue to take its toll on the Ponca over the years, however their populations steadily increased. The combined party attacked the Ponca hunting camp, killing a Ponca sub-chief named Heavy Cloud and 14 others in retaliation for selling their lands to the U.S. Government the previous year (Howard, 1965, p. 31). This termination removed 442 Ponca from the tribal rolls, dispossessing them of 834 acres in Nebraska. The chiefs were then forced to make the journey home in the middle of winter, without money, food or an interpreter. Casey Camp Horinek, the Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma's environmental ambassador, speaks at a Black Lives Matter protest earlier this summer in Ponca City. To commemorate the victory over the Pawnee, Chief Smoke Maker's newborn son was carried to the battlefield by an old woman and caused him to put his feet on two of the Pawnee corpses, whereupon he was given the name Non-ba-a-ton meaning “treads on two” (Dorsey, 1890, pp. These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: When these cited figures above are added, the total comes to 600 persons accounted for. In the fall of 1855, according to an account recorded by Rev. However, after the trial, President Rutherford B. Hayes assigned a commission to investigate details and found that the Ponca were being unjustly treated. It was not until 9 July 1877 that the party passed through Baxter Springs in Southeastern Kansas and crossed the line into the Indian Territory on the lands of the Quapaw Tribe. ), and Mar. IDA Treaties Explorer Partners About Treaties Explorer. Little Chief – son of Smoke Maker (has hereditary leadership rites. Ponca City Public Schools . This was followed in 1826 by yet another treaty, in which the Federal Government agreed to receive the Ponca “…into their friendship and under their protection.” it should be noted, that there are no records that exist to date, showing that any member of the Ponca Tribe have ever killed white settlers or soldiers, or have ever taken up arms against the United States of America. Located on the North side of the settlement of White Eagle, Ponca Indian Reservation, Kay County, Oklahoma.

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